Testing Cyber-Physical Systems under Uncertainty: Systematic, Extensible, and Configurable Model-based and Search-based Testing Methodologies

Jan. 01, 2015 to Dec. 31, 2017


Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) link IT with the physical world forming a network of interrelated elements. These systems are highly automated, intelligent and collaborative. They are increasingly used in safety or mission critical domains such as healthcare, automotive, production, energy, and transport.


CPSs must be reliable, robust, efficient, safe, and secure, even in the presence of uncertainty. Uncertainty is a special state of a CPSs that cannot be described. The future outcome from this state may not be determined, or there is a possibility of more than one outcome from this state (non-determinism). Uncertainty is inherent in CPSs since these systems usually consist of heterogeneous embedded systems interconnected via heterogeneous networks. Dealing with uncertainty at an acceptable cost is vital to avoid posing undue threats to the system users and the environment.

Overall Aim

U-Test will aim to improve dependability of CPSs by defining extensible MBT (Model Based Testing) frameworks supporting holistic testing of the systems under uncertainty in a cost-effective manner by:

  • providing a comprehensive and extensible taxonomy of uncertainties, classifying uncertainties, their properties, and their relationships
  • creating an Uncertainty Modeling Framework (UMF) to support modeling uncertainties at various levels (relying on exiting modeling/testing standards)
  • defining an intelligent way to evolve uncertainty models developed using UMF towards realistic unknown uncertainty models using search algorithms
  • generating cost-effective test cases from uncertainty and evolved models

For the application of U-Test concepts, two industrial case studies are used as a basis for testing uncertainty: Geo Sports Case Study (athlete health monitoring) and Handling Systems Case Study (warehouse logistics).

SQC's Contribution

SQC is contributing to U-Test

  • with its experiences in developing advanced modelling and testing methods and techniques for safety-critical systems operating in potential adversarial environments, bringing in its expertise in modelling and testing from a large number of research projects as well as from the industry.
  • with the ModelBus® technology, an advanced tool integration platform, serving as basis for innovative, efficient and highly integrated development solutions.
  • with Fokus!MBT (Model-based Testing), a rich test modeling environment that simplifies the creation of the underlying test model by guiding the user through methodology-specific support, providing an easy way of integrating advanced test case generation methods.

U-Test is a Horizon 2020 project which is funded by the EU.